For example, a particle pair can pop out of the vacuum during a very short time interval. When the mass is very large like a macroscopic object , the uncertainties and thus the quantum effect become very small, and classical physics is applicable. In quantum field theory , fields undergo quantum fluctuations. A reasonably clear distinction can be made between quantum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations [ how?

Note that the following three points are closely related:. We can construct a classical continuous random field that has the same probability density as the quantum vacuum state, so that the principal difference from quantum field theory is the measurement theory measurement in quantum theory is different from measurement for a classical continuous random field, in that classical measurements are always mutually compatible — in quantum mechanical terms they always commute.

Quantum effects that are consequences only of quantum fluctuations, not of subtleties of measurement incompatibility, can alternatively be models of classical continuous random fields.

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The success of quantum fluctuation theories have given way to metaphysical interpretations on the nature of reality and their potential role in the origin and structure of the universe:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For related articles, see Quantum vacuum disambiguation. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April See also: Interpretations of quantum mechanics.

The New York Times. Retrieved According to quantum theory, the vacuum contains neither matter nor energy, but it does contain fluctuations, transitions between something and nothing in which potential existence can be transformed into real existence by the addition of energy. Energy and matter are equivalent since all matter ultimately consists of packets of energy. Thus, the vacuum's totally empty space is actually a seething turmoil of creation and annihilation, of which to the ordinary world appears calm because the scale of fluctuations in the vacuum is tiny and the fluctuations tend to cancel each other out.

Keywords: quantum optics , quantum fluctuations , zero-point energy , vacuum field fluctuations , uncertainty relations , spontaneous emission , van der Waals interaction , Casimir effect , fluctuation-dissipation relations , Langevin noise. Peter W.

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## Measuring light and vacuum fluctuations from a time flow perspective

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## Quantum fluctuations in the conformally flat and the schwarzschild space-times | SpringerLink

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Milonni Abstract This book is an introduction to quantum optics for students who have studied electromagnetism and quantum mechanics at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level. More This book is an introduction to quantum optics for students who have studied electromagnetism and quantum mechanics at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level. Authors Affiliations are at time of print publication.

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